Can you list a few aircraft collision incidents which happened on runway or taxiway?

1.The Tenerife Airport Disaster : On 27 March 1977, the deadliest-ever aviation accident occurs at Los Rodeos Airport (now known as Tenerife-North Airport) in the Canary Islands, when Pan American World Airways Flight 1736 and KLM Flight 4805 collide on the runway in thick fog during the KLM aircraft’s attempt to take off, killing 583 people. The poor weather played a part in the disaster, but the fundamental causes of the crash were numerous errors by the pilots of the two aircraft and the airport’s air traffic control officers.

2.USAir Flight 1493 : On 1 February 1991, USAir Flight 1493 collides with a waiting SkyWest Airlines aircraft on the runway, killing 34 people. An air traffic controller mistakenly assigned the inbound Flight 1493 to land on a runway where SkyWest Flight 5569 was waiting to take off.

3.The Linate Airport disaster : On 8 October 2001, Scandinavian Airlines Flight 686, carrying 110 people bound for Copenhagen, Denmark, is taking off at Milan’s Linate Airport in thick fog. On the runway, it collides with an Air Evex business jet carrying four people bound for Paris, France. The airliner suffers major damage and crashes into a building shortly afterwards. All 114 people on board the two aircraft are killed, along with four on the ground. The crew of the business jet had made a wrong turn while taxiing in the fog and inadvertently taxied onto the runway.

4.Singapore Airlines Flight 006 : On 31 October 2000, Singapore Airlines Flight 006 collides with construction equipment at Chiang Kai-shek International Airport in Taipei while attempting to take off on the wrong runway in a typhoon. 83 of the 179 passengers and crew members perish. Investigators concluded that pilot error was the cause of the crash.

5.United Express Flight 5925 : On 19 November 1996, United Express Flight 5925, operating for Great Lakes Airlines, lands at Quincy Regional Airport and collides with a light aircraft taking off from an intersecting runway. All 14 occupants on both aircraft were killed in a subsequent fire.

source : List of Mayday episodes – Wikipedia

There are few incidents happened among those,

1. Tenerife Airport Disaster is noted as most worse accident in history.

Situation:

Two 747s waiting at Los Rodeos were Pan Am 1736 and KLM (a Dutch airline) 4805. As soon as the Gran Canaria airport reopened, the Pan Am was ready to leave. However, the captain of the KLM had decided to refuel at Los Rodeos. Refueling both kept the Pan Am behind the KLM and made time for a heavy fog to set in.

When it was finally ready, the KLM was told to taxi up the runway and turn 180 degrees to prepare to take off. The Pan Am was told to taxi up to the third exit, cross back to the taxiway (clear at that point of other airplanes), then turn back onto the runway after the KLM left. However, the crew of the Pan Am was confused about which exit to take, particularly since they were not marked by number and visibility was low in the fog. Also, the slant of the exits meant that the third exit would require performing two 135 degree turns, nearly impossible in that amount of space, while the fourth exit would require two comfortable 45 degree turns. The Pan Am continued taxiing to the fourth exit.

The captain of the KLM began to prepare for takeoff. His flight engineer pointed out that they did not have clearance to leave. They asked the controller for clearance, but the answer was unclear, partly due to interference from the Pan Am radioing at the same time to point out that they were still on the runway. The flight engineer did not dare point out a second time that they did not have proper clearance, potentially embarrassing the captain. The fog meant that neither plane could see the other, the local air traffic controller could hardly see the two planes, and the crew of the Pan Am most likely believed that nobody would be allowed to take off in such low visibility.

The KLM began to take off down the runway. They came in view of the Pan Am just as the Pan Am reached the fourth exit. The Pan Am pilot took a hard left onto the exit, and the KLM pilot hurriedly attempted to take off. Because of their enormous weight, being full of fuel, and their steep takeoff angle, their tail scraped along the runway, and the bottom of the KLM and its landing gear hit the upper right side of the Pan Am, tearing the top off. The KLM plane was momentarily airborne, but it had lost use of two of its engines, and it crashed back onto the runway. The enormous fuel fire killed everyone on board. 61 people on the Pan Am, including the flight engineer, ultimately survived.

Below picture gives you the complete scenario of incident:

For other similar incidents : Tenerife airport disaster – Wikipedia

2. Near-collision of 2 aeroplanes at Barcelona Airport.

This incident is also similar to Tenerife Airport Disaster but collision was missed with 10–15 seconds between UT air B 737 and Argentinian Aircraft A 340.

You got to see this video:

Here comes situation explained by UT Air pilot captain.

UTair captain Limarev :

“Before getting close to the runway we heard the air traffic controller’s command allowing Argentinians to cross the runway after we had landed.

The Argentinians repeated the comment which meant that they heard and accepted it.

But then suddenly – and without a clear reason – the Argentinians got onto the runway just as our altitude was going below 100 metres”.

“As we were getting ready to land, about 10, 15 seconds prior to reaching the rear end of the runway, we noticed the Argentinian Airbus A 340-300 moving at 60 degrees towards the runway we were approaching.

The weather was fine, so after the Argentinian plane reached the runway and got onto it, we went onto a second round, not waiting for the air traffic controller’s command.

It took us about 15 minutes to complete the second round. When we finished it we approached the airport again and successfully landed at El Prat.”

Yes sure,

Here are some incidents due to runway incursion-

Any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle, or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft.

  • In the 1972 Chicago–O’Hare runway collision, North Central Airlines Flight 575 (a McDonnell Douglas DC-9) collided during its takeoff roll with Delta Air Lines Flight 954 (a Convair CV-880) while the CV-880 was taxiing across a fog-shrouded runway at O’Hare International Airport in Chicago, Illinois, killing 10 people and injuring 17.
  • On 11 October 1984, Aeroflot Flight 3352, a Tupolev Tu-154B-1 hit maintenance vehicles on the runway attempting to land in Omsk, Russia. The ground controller allowed the workers to dry the runway during heavy rain and fell asleep on the job. 174 people aboard the aircraft were killed, along 4 people in the wrecked maintenance vehicles.
  • 1994 TWA Flight 427/Superior Aviation Cessna 441 Conquest II, 22 November 1994: Cessna pilot error at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport. Pilot taxied to incorrect runway and was struck by departing TWA MD-80, 2 fatalities on the Cessna.
  • On 16 November 1996, United Express Flight 5925 was landing at Quincy Regional Airport when the pilot of a Beechcraft King Air started to take off on an intersecting runway. As the field was uncontrolled, the United Express pilots inquired whether the King Air was clear of the runways. They received no response except for a call from a Piper Cherokee saying they were holding short. The King Air and United Express collided at the intersection of the two runways killing all 12 on board Flight 5925 and the pilot and passenger of the Beechcraft King Air.
  • On 1 April 1999, an Air China Boeing 747, Flight 9018, taxied onto an active runway at Chicago’s O’Hare International Airport during the takeoff of Korean Air Flight 36, another 747. Flight 36 averted a collision by taking off early, missing the Air China aircraft by 75 feet. There were 8 people on the Air China jet, and 379 on the South Korean flight.
  • 1999 T. F. Green Airport runway incursion, 6 December 1999: In low visibility at night, a United Airlines 757 turned down the wrong taxiway and taxied onto the active runway just as a FedEx Express 727 took off. No collision occurred.
  • Linate Airport disaster, 8 October 2001: Scandinavian flight 686 collided on takeoff with a Cessna Citation registered D-IEVX that had turned onto the wrong taxiway, causing it to enter the runway.
  • 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami aftermath, Banda Aceh 4 January 2005: water buffalo on runway caused ground collision which seriously delayed relief flights.
  • On 9 June 2005, US Airways Flight 1170, a Boeing 737-300, nearly collided with Aer Lingus Flight 132, an Airbus A330 at Logan International Airport in Boston after both flights were given nearly simultaneous clearances for takeoff on intersecting runways. The US Airways flight kept its nose down on the runway for an extended amount of time to go underneath the Aer Lingus flight and avoided a collision.
  • On 11 October 2016, China Eastern Airlines Flight MU5643, an Airbus A320 (Registration B-2337), nearly collided with Flight MU5106 of the same airline, an Airbus A330 at Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport in Shanghai, China, when the former was taking off on runway 36L while the latter was crossing the same runway under wrong instruction. The former performed a TOGA takeoff, managed to climb over the latter and avoided a collision.

In fact the deadliest aviation collision in world history was due to a runway incursion-

On March 27, 1977, two Boeing 747 passenger jets collided on the runway at Los Rodeos Airport (now Tenerife North Airport), on the Spanish island of Tenerife, Canary Islands. The crash killed 583 people.

See more over here- Tenerife airport disaster – Wikipedia

There are few collisions on the Runway, they are as follows-

  1. Tenerife airport disaster (1977)
  2. Chicago–O’Hare runway collision (1972)
  3. USAir Flight 1493 (1991)

Out of which Tenerife airport disaster was the worst, as two Boeing 747 passenger jets collided on the runway at Los Rodeos Airport (now Tenerife North Airport), on the Spanish island of Tenerife, Canary Islands. The crash killed 583 people, making it the deadliest in the avaition history.

The Tenerife air disaster. It’s a real big tragedy